studies of the Book of Changes

studies of the Book of Changes

Yi and Suzhou Ouyuan layout

While reading Qian Yi

(1 College of humanities, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237; Suzhou 215000, 2)

Not long ago, Suzhou park has been listed by UNESCO as a world cultural heritage, as a representative of the classical gardens of Suzhou, still need cultural connotation it contains further excavation. After the study of the layout is found Ouyuan, Master Yi ology principle results, this in order to "imitate the nature" as the standard of the Suzhou gardening history, it is only in this case. The new findings enrich the interpretation of cultural park. The unique cultural connotation is a very precious cultural heritage, should be paid full attention to.

Keywords Yi Cultural Heritage Park Layout

Book of Changes and Suzhou Ouyuan Layout

Ju Yueshi  Qian Yi

Abstract  As a representative of Suzhou classical Gardens, Suzhou Ouyuan strongly requires our attention to further research of its profound culture background after it was approved its application of world cultural legacy by UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recently. At present, extensive research work show that the layout of Ouyuan is the fruit of applying Book of Changes ingeniously by its owner. The new discovery enriches the explanation to Ouyuan Culture, which stands Ouyuan as the only example for its sophisticated arrangement in Suzhou where the worship to nature is the most important guideline. Great attention should be attached to its most cherished unique cultural treasure. 

    Key words Book of Changes  Ouyuan Layout  Cultural Legacy

    Author   Ju Yueshi  Born in 1955

                       Associate Professor

                       Humanity and Cultural College 

                       East China University of Science and Technology 

              Qian Yi  Born in 1950

                       Vice Curator 

                       Suzhou Gardens Museum

"Nature" is the highest realm of Suzhou classical garden. Humble Administrator's Garden was first built, on the basis of the original terrain, "a little Shunji, surrounded by trees". [] Lingering Garden central hillock above to build "osmanthus fragrance Pavilion", built on the corridor, according to potential rise and fall, steep slope is still, and the elderly to walk alone. The ancient large bureaucratic house will block south, Suzhou private garden, the garden door is not always south, but according to local conditions, with the potential of directional. Today known as the North Gate Park in Canglang Pavilion; the garden door North East Yiyuan door. There are many disrepair, hidden in the alley of the old private garden, the door is in accordance with the direction and towards the street, southeast northwest are no different from ordinary residential buildings.

However, the classical gardens of Suzhou Ouyuan layout construction principle, direction and position of deliberate attention. As a landscape architecture, rocks, pools, trees were reflected in a careful arrangement, contains the principle to learn, this is a very rare example in the architectural history of the classical gardens of Suzhou.

Master Shen Bingcheng, listen to the banana garden, since the name of the old crane is a crane, claiming to chen. Life like reading Buddhist and Taoist books, and well supported operation. His ancestor Shen Bingzhen specializing in the study of ancient times, and the period of Qianlong four people in close association with Liu Yong calligraphy, Autographed antithetical couplet gifts, joint said:

I find with books on the outside for sleep in peace.

Shen Bingcheng in the park is completed, will save the ancestors of this antithetical couplet in the East City Song cottage den, confirms Shen Bingcheng is a happy man to explore. That is not easy in Ouyuan layout principle contains the haphazard (traditional culture not consciously reveal or coincidence), but the owner of the garden to the. The rule of law for the construction of private gardens, to provide us with an extremely precious cultural heritage of gardens, should be fully paid attention to. The following relationship between Ouyuan layout and learn to make a study on.


The orientation of the building is not determined at random, in addition to considering the Xiangyang, high cool, ventilation and other factors, there are more belief determines the choice of building orientation, building space elements contained in the relevant concept and mystery.

The mystical idea that affected orientation was originally derived from the observation of nature, especially the observation of space, Joseph Needham pointed out:"...... In both urban and rural concentrated or dispersed in the Grange in residential are often a pattern of "the universe" feeling, and symbolism as the direction, festivals, the wind and the stars." Indeed, people love China ancient astronomical phenomena and the imagination, astrology and totem image, then the introduction of daily life, the reality of life as a part of the universe, and consciously accept the universe dominated. "Four" is a typical example. Yin Dynasty, people of the spring dusk appear in the southern sky wells ghost, Liu, star, Zhang Yi, Zhen, seven stars as birds; think of the eastern sky angle, Kang, Di, the real heart, tail, skip seven stars for long; the western sky, Kui Lou, stomach Albert, ginseng, mouth, seven stars as imagine imagine the northern sky; the bucket, cattle, female, empty, empty wall, danger, seven stars as tortoise and snake. Totem of the skies is to imagine on the square on the square, the southern barbarians and family worship of birds, the little Hao Yi nationality worship dragon Xiqiang clan worship worship of the tiger, the North Xia clan worship snake. This is the sky and earth and find each other according to the practice of many far fetched elements, which belongs to the unconvincing "superstition" content.

After the formation of the "book of changes", directly affects the building orientation and content. One example is the idea of a heavenly law.

The spring and Autumn period, feudal lords vying for the throne princes hegemony, to suppress the enemy, princes built city modeled on the concept of the city layout of the Kingdom, in order to welfare. In 514 BC, Wu Zixu King Lu ordered construction of the Suzhou City, "Wu Zixu is the land and water, as heaven and earth, build a great city, weeks back forty-seven years. The eight door, as eight days; eight and eight gates, Cong. Zhu Town, Zhou Shi Li, Lu door three. Do not open to the East who would like to be the most prosperous. Li Chang men who like to Tianmen pass, Lu of the wind. And the people of the house of the people, so that the house of. Lu Yupo Chu, Chu in the northwest, the door to the enemy made a snake. Wu Zaichen, the dragon, the town south gate, on the anti feathering two pinchonii seedlings, as c.. The more in their own land, the snake is also, so the South Gate of the snake. North to the south, the first show, the more Wu Ye." 2

The name of King Shao Yong of the Northern Song Dynasty, made "King gossip orientation map", it provides a direct basis for building. (see Figure 1)


Figure 1 Wenwang Bagua azimuth diagram

The gossip azimuth diagram derived from the interpretation of "the Gua - fifth chapter", according to the interpretation of natural phenomena, reveal the circular motion law of the universe again, reflects the ancient understanding of the laws of nature. East Zhengua, East sunrise, the sun shines all emerged, a symbol of spring. Xungua is located in the southeast, the sun is shining, the growth of all things, a symbol of spring and summer. From the south, from the sun, the symbol of a bright summer. Kun is located in the southwest, a symbol of the earth, nourishing, corresponding to the summer. The West against the Gua, corresponding to autumn harvest season, a symbol of joy. Qian is located in the northwest, the day when the sun is at the corresponding, yin and Yang, light and dark, the season is autumn to winter. North kangua, a symbol of the night and winter. Gen Gua is located in the northeast, a symbol of a new day is coming, the corresponding season for winter and spring.

With the history of Northern Song Dynasty before the "Zhouyi" analysis, the content is very rich, in order to facilitate the analysis, the contact with the contents of this paper are listed in the table below for reference. (see Table 1)



Table five 1 line schemata

Courtyard a collection of four images, the Quartet, four and five for the concept, is easy to affect the building's representative, it focuses on the axis of symmetry and reflect the range of meaning, Wenwang bagua. (see Figure 2).③


Figure 2 Beijing courtyard plan

Figure in the door open in the southeast corner of Sunda Sunda, wind, and moral fortune in. The back seat, built in the south of the house, to the north, and the male servants place pile. The west wing, built in the main house on the right, as against the west, the West against the girl, for young women home, "the West Chamber" in the West Wing in yingying. The main house, built on the left, the East shock, with images of male, male children in the East Wing arrangement. The rooms for your parents in the middle. Doors and windows to the south, take Xiang Ming (from). For the back room, piling up debris and female servants home, is cooking, the kitchen is the place where the fire, arranged in the home to the North Ridge, a Yinkan belongs to water, fire water. And as the main room, kitchen door, three elements and symbol in azimuth, the main house in the north "hum", belongs to water, house in the southeast, belongs to wood "Sunda", "said Mizuki aioi".


The relationship between the above brief examines architecture and easy to learn, in accordance with this relationship under control coupled planar graph, using analysis to learn in the layout of the park. (see Figure 3).


Figure 3 Park Plan

The whole garden park is divided into two parts of East and West Garden garden. The area of East Atlantic garden garden, is based on the principle of yin and Yang big small. The gate to the south, the East Garden left, West Garden West, with the left Yin Yang right system. Two things in the garden gate park and to the south, according to the "book of changes", from the south, corresponding to a midday and a year of summer, the sun sunshine, for one day and one year time Yang wang. "Wang humiliation, hard and Shengyang balance, avoiding the anti injury, so not just south of yin and Yang houses standing. Yang house located in the southeast at the southeast side, although is Sunda, meaning but also contain felicitous wish of making money, avoid at this layer of meaning. Yamen and Taoist temple is the orthodox building, can stand south. Noble merchants by industry type, yin and Yang Zhai also South side. Park Master progenitor generation courtiers, started his illustrious, officer to the governor of Anhui, the official property of steel, the garden gate south side, by world relief Wang Sheng Yang. And "out, bright, and listen to the south of Saint Xiang Ming world, and rule" ("the Gua - fifth chapter"), the south stand Ouyuan door, symbol of light, also shows that the owner of the garden by sage.

In line two middle Park, the hall after hall, then the hall and balcony. This axis slightly West, forming the West Garden Garden Dadong small pattern. The center hall "carrying wine hall, miankuo five, is the park main hall, the master of the feast. "Optional" phenomenon has repeatedly reflected in the ancient capital building, and "Luo Shu" and "JiuGongTu". Five for the "Han Zhi" wrote: "Fu Xi's second day and the king, by the riverside, and painting, gossip is also." It is the "riverside", "Luo Shu" and "Zhouyi" gossip began to contact. "Riverside", "Luo Shu" to explain the origin of gossip and schema of "Zhouyi" principle. The book consists of 45 black and white dots, said white dots even odd. In digital is "too much of a downlink jiugongtu". (see Figure 4, figure 5)



Figure 4.


Figure 5 is a downward JiuGongTu

"JiuGongTu" middle number is "5", and it is arbitrary on both sides of the two numbers, and it must be "15", therefore, "Five" has the meaning of ontology. The ancients and the "3" as "2 days," as the number, "5" is the sum of the number of the world, therefore, "Five" is the symbol of the world is not the prime of Tai chi. "Wine hall" of the building size of 5 wide, the implication of the "5" number of meaning. The classical gardens of Suzhou is not restricted by space, general planning axis, instead of non geometric layout, in order to avoid the cramped space short. In the park the classical gardens of Suzhou area is not large, but there is obvious in the axis of the layout, "Wei Yi, chisel": "Yi Yin and Yang, and the Tao is fifteen." "15" on behalf of "Tao", "Tao" as the fundamental, this is the reason why the hall "carrying wine hall" is located in the central park. If there is no central axis there is no whole garden of the easy to learn. "Too much of a downlink control JiuGongTu", so it can determine the Ouyuan layout based on the.


From the perspective of yin and Yang, yin and Yang is not the two part of the distinct separation, but there are yin and Yang, Yang Yin, yin and Yang interaction. Is the theme of both the couple Hermitage Park, and east garden layout symbolizes the harmonious and happy life for men and women. Shen Bingcheng is the third wife of Yan Yonghua, the number 3 corresponds to the direction of the East, so, the east garden is full of the shadow of the master of the garden third.

By the pool, in the title of the "month" Yin, "Yin" variant as "hidden" means the water of the month is yin. The shore by the pile of stone, stone Weiyang, Gu Chi yang. In the pond water and the water is cloudy, "is affected by the moon pond" the dark house male host accepts and the attachment female master.

The pavilion is located in the east wall, Dong Yang, Yang Wang Yin "month", also the host hostess moral attachment.

Double light building, in the title of "light" is "Ming", "double" refers to "day" and "month", "day" for the "month" Yin Yang, yin and Yang, the moon and the sun light, the coexistence of "Ming", Yu Garden couples both dark side by side.

A title for Shen Bingcheng Lu Yan, a stone, cut into two pieces of Yantai, and his wife in the palm of a inkstone. "A" word "word" explained: "a class of flatfish. Flat side, asymmetry, his eyes are on the right side." Two a stone inkstone Shen made asymmetric, named "flounder inkstone" meaning, harmony of yin and Yang of the couple.

The landscape is a pavilion, where the horizon is relatively low, the north is looking up at the towering high pinnacle, "high" mood, "mountain" and "water" and "layout and metaphor of yin and Yang, the master is the Title Expression of couples congenial temperament landscape", and learned friend.

East garden also planting trees, trees for shade plants, trees corresponding to the west, so the arrangement at the western wall. It is said that the son mother funeral, to do with platanewood stick, if for her father's funeral, it should be replaced with a bamboo stick. The reason is clear in the trunk in the Indus, a symbol of women; in the bamboo, a symbol of male. Folk belief, trees attract Phoenix live, "a parasol tree, why not to Phoenix". "Chuang-tzu autumn": "husband Wan young hair in the South China Sea and fly bird in Beihai, not only to practice non Indus, non food, non Liquan not drink." Wan is the legendary Phoenix young birds and birds of the same kind. In the west wall planting Indus Shen Dong Yuan, can think of his wife as a Phoenix, attract the East Garden habitat, to spend time with him.

The main building of the East Garden in accordance with the law in accordance with the "easy" to learn the direction of the layout.

Jun Lang, "Yun" is the nickname for the bamboo, bamboo Yang, a symbol of spring, so close to the east wall layout Yun gallery.

Gansu Corridor, corridor side planting osmanthus osmanthus Osmanthus fragrans, that is, for the fall of the flower, the corresponding direction for the "West", the "sweet Gallery" arranged in the West east.

The city is located in the park song cottage, the northeast corner of the northeast, "gen", "all things have become, the end of the beginning, that the peace of burgundy". "Easy" and "gen, stop, when it ended when the line, without movement at that time, the light". Shen believes that he has decided to withdraw from officialdom, achieve success and win recognition, Hermitage Park, fight for life road end, the so-called "born", "when it ended", realize the life transformation. Since then he had a light and easy tranquil quiet life, a poetic couplet wrote:

Wo Shi Kikunami, full color Shansong;

Open the door to see the rain, a piece of banana sound.

"Gen" also "correspondence" and "heart (SI)" (see Table 1), in the "Shen Gen" who built the cottage, a power hidden allegory where vulgar mind degradation.

"City Song cottage" relative to the east garden, located in the north direction, North Tibet, corresponding to the Wuchang "wisdom", "white tiger", "explained:" the wise man knows, only see smell, no doubt in the matter, see also micro." And therefore, in the city of Shen Song cottage in the provision of "read an old building", is very rich in collecting books. He is in the idle time, up to read books, generating new insights, Changzhi doubts, a pursuit of "sleep is today and yesterday is not the" realm of meaning.


The formation of the relationship between yin and Yang on the whole west garden and the east garden layout area, West Yin, the area is less than the East West garden rockery garden; the original water (water, Yin) corresponding to the formation of the east garden rockery garden there is a drought; West wells (small Yin), and the east of the garden pond should the west garden; to feminine curve delicate Taihu heap and stack the rockery, the East Garden in Huangshi and the masculine straight stacked corresponding rockery. From the individual architecture and layout, and easy to learn to have a relationship for the following:

The library, located in North West West wall, corresponding to "close", "North Tibet", the corresponding library arranged in "collection" hidden "position, easy to meet. General temple Tripitaka floor are arranged in the north, North corresponding water, meaning to water fire, avoid fire accident. Park arrangement library has this meaning. Here is another layer of meaning, the West against the Gua, symbol of autumn, autumn is fruitful, the joyful harvest season. Language expression and the meaning of life. Shen Bingcheng was born in 1822, purchased Park (1874), when he was 52 years old, the age of the corresponding season, equivalent to the autumn season, the mature stage of life is the most rewarding, quit officialdom writing, as Shen later choice. "Yan", "Zuo Gong twenty-four years": "there were Lide, followed by a second is meritorious, Liyan, although not long waste, this is called immortal". Kong Yingda said: "Shu Lide, creating vertical method, called to Ecuador liberally; meritorious work in problem solving, Ji; Liyan, the words that can pass to science". From the Shen Bingcheng resume, during Su Sung too many office, because power was rewarded, eight years often granted Jiangsu Tong Seaway, ten years adjustment Su Song too tired, to raise rates, and therefore the title, Jin Shi title, enjoy wearing peacock." The service has been successfully completed,

One handed down into Shen was the highest spiritual pursuit and life end. Shen left behind "breeding", "mulberry Lu inkstone stone inscription" flounder in various works, do the "speech". So he in the West Garden West arrangement "library" and "woven curtain of the old house, said he was ready to put the books, life experience and learning experience as the fruit harvest, to later generations.

Shen fengjiangdali stepped down from the high place, although the illness is one of the reasons, but subjectively want out of officialdom played an important role. He is a good man, Taoism, Buddhism, thin fame, completely different from the government bureaucracy. Two years after the completion of the purchase of the garden park, he wrote a poem to the happy mood, said:

No hidden hidden mountain towards the city, near the city of Lu open cottage.

A unique window spring lock ring, built up the microwave late students.

Fu Shu resignation of non Buddhist Langzhong cents masquerade, dare to forget.

Bu o just like Pingquan near, ask the car often contains wine.

Mrs. Yan Yonghua and said:

Break it by officials to Huang Xiepu, jinguancheng.

Old house Pavilion flower hair, clear dream pond grass.

Around the knee Tianle Shuang Ding, a bang Yin love knot.

Yongchun Guang long in spring, you should see the old crane Ying Yin jiao.

When Shen Su Song too, therefore the promotion of Henan and Sichuan provincial judge, he was not resigned to disease. Promotion opportunities don't, but transferred to the city without Lane seclusion, this is the life of a major choice, he got lady heartfelt support, so he no regrets this change, think this decision is appropriate. "West" and "northwest" and "righteousness" with respect to Wuchang, "white tiger", "said:" the righteous, appropriate, must also break." Take the rest of my life for his writing, that is suitable for the decision, so the "library" and "old woven curtain" arranged in the northwest and West, Han "hidden meaning". As for the "fabric curtain of the old house" title, can be understood: "Ma" corresponds to the "West", the weft woven curtain material is "Ma", so named, both implicit and easy, said the couple of seclusion.

The above analysis shows that, in order to learn the whole garden architecture Ouyuan principle, the meaning of Chinese reflects the profound traditional culture heritage. Is the expression of both the couple Hermitage Park theme, however, if simply as a couple returned after Shen Park, all the rest of my life to celebrate Qingqingwowo inaction, love life home, perhaps a little superficial. The information contained in the China Ouyuan layout of ancient culture, reflects the era of people's ideas, this is today, may be superstitious, but we understand it, still regard these cultural phenomena as part of traditional culture Chinese.

Home reading /1955 annual health / male / Associate Professor / engaged in landscape philosophy research


1 Wang Wen: "Humble Administrator's Garden" Office of local chronicles Compilation Committee of Suzhou city by 1986, page seventy-third.

Wu Yue's spring and Autumn Annals of

3 Wu Yifang, Wu Xieyao: "I Ching know-all", Sichuan people's Publishing House 1993 page 247th.

Liu Dunzhen: "the classical gardens of Suzhou", Chinese Architecture Industry Press, 1979 edition 428-429.

Jin Liangnian: "the knowledge of Chinese mysterious culture", Shanghai cultural publishing house, 1994 206th.

Yang Jinding chief editor: "dictionary of Chinese cultural history", Zhejiang ancient books publishing house, 1987 edition, 133rd pages.

7, the Qing governor of Anhui Yu Yue: "Shen Zhi Ming" cemetery.


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